The revolutionary CyberKnife treatment technology is not new; the CyberKnife System has more than two decades of clinical proof and has helped millions of patients with various brain tumors and metastases.1,2
The CyberKnife System was cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1999 to treat diseases in the head and base of the skull, including, but not limited to, benign and malignant primary tumors, brain metastases, meningiomas, trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and functional disorders. CyberKnife radiosurgery is even used to treat complicated neurosurgical cases, while helping to minimize dose to healthy brain tissues involved in important functions such as motor control, touching, hearing and vision.
CyberKnife treatment is available at hundreds of locations worldwide. Find a Treatment Center Near You
The CyberKnife System offers many of the same benefits of precise surgical intervention. However, treatment with the CyberKnife System is not surgical at all. CyberKnife radiosurgery is an outpatient procedure that does not require incisions or general anesthesia. Most patients will not require hospitalization or a long recovery period. Compared with single-session radiosurgery with the frame-based Gamma Knife, treatment with the CyberKnife System can be spread out over 1 or more sessions, which may result in fewer side effects.
Radiation therapy is a treatment that uses high-energy X-rays (photons) to kill, shrink or control the growth of tumors. Radiation therapy works by damaging cells, disabling them from growing and dividing. The goal of any radiation treatment is to destroy cancer cells while minimizing the dose to healthy tissue. As imaging technologies have improved over the last several decades, radiation therapy has integrated those improvements to enhance dose delivery and potentially minimize side effects.
Radiation may be recommended as an alternative to surgery or in addition to other therapies. There are several kinds of radiation therapy. The CyberKnife System delivers a type of radiation therapy known as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) couples a high degree of targeting accuracy with very high doses of extremely precise, externally delivered radiation thereby maximizing the cell-killing effect on the tumor(s), while minimizing the dose to other nearby organs. The treatment is delivered in 1 to 5 sessions to the brain, typically by a team involving a radiation oncologist and a neurosurgeon. This treatment does not involve surgery.
The precision and accuracy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivered with the CyberKnife System can offer several powerful benefits, including:
- Non-surgical and non-invasive
- Good cancer control
May reduce the risk of common cognitive side effects of whole-brain radiation that may impact patients’ quality of life, such as remembering things and concentrating
Treatments can typically be completed in just 1 to 5 sessions over 1 to 2 weeks
The majority of patients can continue normal activity during and immediately following treatment
Typically does not require interruption of chemotherapy cycles or immunotherapy treatments
Patients previously treated with whole brain radiotherapy may be candidates for CyberKnife SRS treatment
Instead of delivering radiation to all brain tissues, CyberKnife radiosurgery targets the tumor(s) with sub-millimeter accuracy, its pinpoint precision is within the thickness of a dime, helping to minimize dose to healthy brain tissues and potentially reducing the risk of common cognitive side effects of whole-brain radiation. In addition, CyberKnife radiosurgery can typically be completed in just 1 to 5 sessions over 1 to 2 weeks.
Compared with single-session radiosurgery with the frame-based Gamma Knife, treatment with the CyberKnife System can be spread out over one to five sessions, which may result in fewer side effects3. CyberKnife multi-session radiosurgery has been shown to enable safer treatment of tumors close to sensitive structures in the head and neck4,5,6,7,8,9.
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with the CyberKnife System may offer an alternative to surgical intervention, whole-brain radiation therapy and conventional fractionation. CyberKnife SRS treatment is frequently used to treat the following types of cases:
- Brain Metastases
When cancer is limited to one (or a small number) of well-defined tumors in the brain, radiosurgery can provide a more focused treatment than conventional whole-brain radiation.
- Radiation-Resistant Tumors
Some types of brain tumors do not respond well to the low doses of frequent radiation used in conventional whole-brain radiation. However, these radiation-resistant tumors may be effectively treated with high-dose radiation treatment using CyberKnife radiosurgery.
- Avoiding Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy Interruption
Many patients respond well to multi-modality treatment that combines radiation therapy with systemic treatment such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Unlike conventional whole-brain radiation, which may require interrupting chemotherapy treatment for several weeks, CyberKnife radiosurgery can be completed in as little as 1-5 visits and typically does not require interruption to the chemotherapy cycle or immunotherapy treatments.
- Patients with Prior Brain Irradiation
In the event of a recurrence, it is generally not possible for patients to undergo a second course of whole-brain radiation. Because CyberKnife radiosurgery delivers precisely targeted radiation, it may provide an effective radiation treatment option for some previously irradiated tumors. In addition, clinical data indicates that patients previously treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery (SRS) can be effectively treated with additional courses of SRS — thereby delaying or completely avoiding whole-brain irradiation10.
- Reducing the Risks of Cognitive Impairment
In some cases, both whole-brain radiation and targeted radiosurgery may be viable treatment options. Both treatments can provide good long-term cancer control, but patients may choose radiosurgery in an effort to reduce the risk of cognitive side effects to memory and concentration.
- Complicated Brain Tumors
For tumors and lesions located in the vicinity of sensitive structures that impact functions like motor control, touching, hearing and vision, the CyberKnife System can provide an extremely targeted treatment that minimizes dose to these sensitive surrounding tissues — helping to reduce the risk of short- and long-term impairments.
Treatment with the CyberKnife System is well-tolerated with a low risk of toxicity. Side effects associated with CyberKnife treatment are usually mild and temporary. As with any radiation treatment, side effects can also be severe in some patients and lead to permanent injury or even death. Discuss your specific case with your physician/s to fully understand the potential risks associated with your treatment. Possible side effects could include but not limited to:
- Increased intracranial pressure expressed by:
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Edema (causing headache)
CyberKnife treatment can typically be completed in as little as 1-5 sessions over 1-2 weeks.
Treatment with the CyberKnife System is a non-surgical and outpatient procedure that does not require incisions or general anesthesia. Most patients will not require hospitalization, or a long recovery period. The majority of patients can continue normal activity during and immediately following treatment.
No anesthesia is required for CyberKnife treatment and treatment sessions are completed on an outpatient basis.
The majority of patients can continue normal activity during and immediately following CyberKnife treatment.
The majority of patients can continue normal activity during and immediately following CyberKnife treatment. Additionally, CyberKnife radiosurgery targets the tumor(s) with sub-millimeter accuracy helping to minimize dose to healthy brain tissues and potentially reducing the risk of common cognitive side effects of whole-brain radiation that may impact patients’ quality of life, such as remembering things and concentrating
The robotic design, combined with real-time imaging and automatic synchronization of the radiation beam with skull movement, enables the CyberKnife System to deliver a maximum dose of radiation directly to the tumor from virtually any angle with sub-millimeter precision throughout treatment delivery. Greater precision helps minimize dose to surrounding healthy tissues, potentially reducing the risk of many common side effects11, 12.
When sub-millimeters matter, even slight skull motion or patient movements can affect the precision and accuracy of the treatment. Failing to synchronize the delivery of radiation dose with skull movement can result in decreased dose delivered to the target — and increased dose delivered to surrounding healthy tissues. This can impact the overall effectiveness of the treatment and can potentially increase the incidence and severity of side effects.
The CyberKnife System continually tracks, automatically adapts and synchronizes treatment delivery with movement of the patient or skull motion in real-time throughout the entire treatment session. This helps ensure the radiation dose is delivered to the target with sub-millimeter accuracy — helping to maximize treatment effectiveness while minimizing dose to surrounding healthy tissues.
The tissues and structures of the brain are among the most delicate and important for maintaining everything from basic function to the essentials qualities that make patients who they are. So, when it comes to delivering radiation to a target in or near the brain, patients need the most accurate approach available. Precisely delivering the prescribed radiation dose to the target location is essential for long-term tumor control — and helping to minimize the risk of potential side effects that can impact short- and long-term quality of life.
CyberKnife SRS treatment is a form of hypofractionated radiation therapy. Compared to traditional radiation therapy treatments — commonly called conventional fractionation, which uses a relatively lower dose of radiation, delivered in a dozen or more sessions across several weeks — hypofractionation entails delivering a higher dose per session (called a fraction) across fewer total sessions. Hypofractionated SRS treatment for brain tumors typically can be completed in as little as 1-5 sessions over 1-2 weeks. Hypofractionated radiation therapy, such as brain SRS, has been proven to deliver clinical outcomes as good as conventional fractionation — while dramatically reducing both the number of treatments and the total cost of care for both patients and payers.
Despite the high dose rate associated with SRS, CyberKnife radiosurgery targets the tumor(s) with sub-millimeter accuracy, its pinpoint precision is within the thickness of a dime, helping to minimize dose to healthy brain tissue. The majority of patients can continue normal activity during and immediately following treatment. Nonetheless, side effects from radiosurgery or SRS may occur during or after treatment and can be severe.
Extensive clinical research demonstrates that brain SRS with the CyberKnife System delivers excellent short- and long-term outcomes:
- CyberKnife SRS has been proven safe and effective for a broad range of neurological indications including brain3, 10, 14and spinal tumors4, 5, 15, meningioma6, acoustic neuroma7, 8, 9, pituitary adenomas16, vascular malformations6, and functional disorders17.
- In a clinical study of 133 patients treated for tumor metastases to the brain presenting with clinical symptoms such as headaches and seizures, 90 percent of patients either stabilized or improved performance status following treatment with the CyberKnife System14.
- In a clinical study of 333 patients using the CyberKnife System to treat tumor metastases to the brain, more than 85 percent of evaluable patients achieved local tumor control at two years post treatment14. That is, the tumor either decreased in size or stopped growing.
- A clinical study of 199 patients whose lesions were unsuitable for treatment with surgery and/or a portion of the lesion remained after surgery found that more than 92 percent of patients either experienced stabilization or a significant improvement of their symptoms following treatment with the CyberKnife System6.
Because it can precisely target tumors, the CyberKnife System may provide an effective radiation treatment option even for some previously irradiated patients. Patients previously treated with CyberKnife SRS can be effectively treated with additional courses of SRS — thereby delaying or completely avoiding whole-brain radiation.
The precise targeting of the CyberKnife System significantly reduces irradiation of surrounding healthy tissues. As a result, the system may provide an effective radiation treatment option for some previously irradiated tumors.
- Patients who have previously received whole-brain radiation may be able to receive additional CyberKnife SRS treatments.
- Patients previously treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery (SRS) can be effectively treated with additional courses of SRS — thereby delaying or completely avoiding whole-brain radiation10.
Medicare and private insurance companies in the United States may reimburse stereotactic radiosurgery for brain tumors subject to medical necessity and your health insurance plan constraints. Patients should contact a CyberKnife treatment center to determine, if this procedure is a covered benefit under your health insurance plan and any out-of-pockets costs such as deductibles, co-insurances, and/or copayments.
Not every patient’s brain tumor is effectively treated with SRS. Talk to your physician about your best options and come to a joint decision. If whole-brain irradiation is recommended or if a glioma or a pituitary adenoma treatment as example is required, Accuray’s Radixact® or TomoTherapy® System may be a good option: Radixact and the TomoTherapy Systems leverage CT-image guidance to ensure highly conformal dose delivery to the tumor with each treatment.